Paper 1 Physical and Inorganic Chemistry
Atomic structure: Fundamental particles, isotopes, mass spectroscopy, electron arrangements.
Amount of substance: The mole concept, calculations about gases, solutions and solids.
Bonding: Ionic, covalent, metallic. Polar bonds, Van der Waals forces,Shapes of molecules.
Energetics: Enthalpy changes, Hess’s law, Bond enthalpies.
Chemical equilibria: Qualitative equilibria, Le Chatelier’s principle, finding the Equilibrium constant, Kc, and related calculations.
Oxidation, reduction and redox equations: Oxidation and reduction.
Periodicity: The blocks in the Periodic table, the trends in properties of the elements across Period 3.
Group 2, the alkaline earth metals: Their properties and reactions.
Group 7(17), the halogens: Their properties and reactions.
Thermodynamics: Enthalpy change (ΔH), Free-energy change (ΔG) and entropy change (ΔS).
Equilibrium constant Kp for homogeneous systems: Kp, and related calculations.
Electrode potentials and electrochemical cells: Electrode potentials, Electrochemical series, Electrochemical cells.
Acids and bases: Strong and weak acids, calculation of pH, the theory and use of buffers.
Properties of Period 3 elements and their oxides: Study of the reactions of Period 3 elements Na – Ar to illustrate periodic trends.
Transition metals: Complex formation, Variable oxidation states, Catalysis
Reactions of ions in aqueous solution: Colour change, ligand substitution, chelation.
Paper 2 Physical and Organic Chemistry:
Amount of substance, Bonding, Energetics and Chemical equilibria: As paper 1
Kinetics: collision theory and rate of reaction.
Introduction to organic chemistry: Organic formulae & nomenclature, homologous series, structural isomerism.
Alkanes: Structure, synthesis and reactions.
Halogenoalkanes: Structure, synthesis and reactions.
Alkenes: Structure, synthesis and reactions.
Alcohols: Structure, synthesis and reactions.
Organic analysis: Mass spectrometry and IR spectroscopy.
Rate equations: Simple rate equations Determination of rate equation.
Optical isomerism: Chirality and polarisation.
Aldehydes and ketones: Structure, synthesis and reactions.
Carboxylic acids and derivatives: Structure, synthesis and reactions.
Aromatic chemistry: Structure, synthesis and reactions.
Amines: Structure, synthesis and reactions.
Polymers: Structure and synthesis.
Amino acids, proteins and DNA: Structure, synthesis and reactions.
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: Structure identification.
Chromatography: Techniques and uses.
Paper 3 assess any content and includes4D molecules on practical chemistry.
Investigative and Practical Skills these are assessed throughout the year. Here are some examples;
Titration based practical skills – Making up a standard solution, Acid – base and redox titrations.
Wet analysis – Tests for alcohols, ketones and aldehydes. Testing for anions and metal cations.
Organic Synthesis – Synthesising and testing purity of an organic product.